32 0 obj <> endstream It has been observed that, 50% of slag has been used for the road project, for sintering and iron-making recycling in steel making plant (Gao et al., 2011). Basu, P., Alternative ironmaking technologies: an environmental impact analysis. (2008). These practices have led to the achievement of much improved mechanical properties of steel. In: 7th International Conference on Waste Management and Technology. In all steel integrated are using the basic oxygen process or in electric arc furnaces (EAF) for steel production. When registered as an ... seen by comparing the compositions of blast furnace slag and steel-making slag … Pouring ladle slag. Both forms are stable in the environment. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1Up�W� /Contents 12 0 R>> /Contents 42 0 R>> Basically, LD slag is generated from steel making process or pig iron refining process in oxygen converters, this process is Linz- Donawitz process (Das et al., 2007; Alexandre et al., 1993; Wu et al., 2007; Shen et al., 2009). endobj Piles of steel slag, a solid waste generated from the iron and steel industry, could be seen due to no utility found for the past century. Basics of steel production and types of steel slag. stream Proctor, D. M., Shay, E. C., Fehling, K. A. and Finley, B. L., Assessment of human health and ecological risks posed by the uses of steel industry slags in the environment. endstream Therefore, this waste can be utilized for enhancing yield as well as solving the disposal problem and improve the environment. endstream Makelaa, M., Watkins, G., Poykio, R., Nurmesniemiet, H., and Dahl, O., Utilization of steel, pulp and paper industry solid residues in forest soil amendment: relevant physicochemical properties and heavy metal availability. Goldring, D. C., and Juckes, L. M., Petrology and stability of LD slag. On one hand, studies based on the use of slag in agriculture will be considered, which treat the use of steel slags for amending acid soils and as source of important factors and growing agents (not only calcium and magnesium compounds, but also other elements such as silicon, providing important beneficial effects for some crops and increasing the plant yields) and its use as Fe source for reducing … The Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) is obtained by grinding blast furnace slag in water or steam. However, the high price of slag disposal imposes the need develop new slag to applications. Through an in-depth study on steel slag, it is apparent that it has been widely used in various fields in recent years. The generation of steel melting slag is over 4 to 4.5 MT per annum. 30 0 obj <> The properties of slag greatly influence its use and thus had got varied applications. Steel slag will have a higher soluble salt content than limestone because of the content of CaO and MgO, which react with water to form Ca(OH)2 and Mg(OH)2. Depending on the iron and steel production process different slag types can be manufactured. The authors are thankful to Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, India for their valuable support and encouragement in the successful accomplishment of this paper. According to data from the Nippon Slag Association (2016), steel slag production in Japan reached about 14.1 million tons in 2016, and the utilization rate was 98.4%. Blast furnace slag is made during the melting and reduction of iron […] Air-cooled blast furnace slag This slag hardens when it reacts with water, with a hydraulic property that provides increasing strength over time. stream In oxidizing conditions is highly soluble and forms Cr(VI) anions, such as chromates CrO42-or dichromates Cr2O72-. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �12Vp�W� <> Das, B., Prakash, S., Reddy, P. S. R., and Mishra, V. N., An overview of utilization of slag and sludge from steel industries. Steel furnace slag is one such by-product material that has seen minimal use, owing to the potential for significant expansive properties. Slags from the iron and steel industry may be used in agriculture to correct soil acidity. � ��� <> Arlington, VA 22201. 19 0 obj Basu, G. S., Sharma, R. P., and Dhilon, A.S., Solid waste management in steel plants challenges and opportunities. Along the east coast of the U.S., soils used for final vegetative cover on landfills have failed to maintain plant cover because of rapidly falling pH values. � �]� Steel Slag Price - Select 2020 high quality Steel Slag Price products in best price from certified Chinese Steel Slag Pot manufacturers, Cast Steel Slag Ladle suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com Steelmaking slag contains less silicic acid than blast furnace slag. References, Enviro Research Publishers, 14 Green House, Prince Colony, Shahjahanabad, Bhopal-462 001, Madhya Pradesh, India, Copyright 2021 © Current World Environment, Water Relations of Two Adjacently Growing Tree Species Shorea Robusta Gaertn-and Pinus Roxburbhii Sarg-in the Lower Himalayan Region, Correction, Retraction, Withdrawal policies, Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement, Publication ethics and malpractice statement, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, Need of Biomedical Waste Management System in Hospitals - An Emerging issue - A Review, Lockdown Due to COVID-19 Pandemic Improves Overall Air Quality: An Evidence Based Study from Siliguri Metropolitan, West Bengal, India, Rainfall Runoff Modeling Using MIKE 11 NAM Model, Considering the Five Senses in Architecture, Multimedia: A Technique in Teaching Process in the Classrooms, Types of Dampers and their Seismic Performance During an Earthquake, Environmental Perspectives of Pond Ecosystems: Global Issues, Services and Indian Scenarios, Prayagraj: Air Pollution Profile and Policy Recommendations, 100 Most Cited Articles in Urban Green and Open Spaces: A Bibliometric Analysis, Green Banking for Environmental Management: A Paradigm Shift. � �f� The generation per annum is 1.28 MT in SAIL (Basu, 2002) and worldwide generation is about 47 MT per annum (Takano et al., 2001). <> stream Date: 30 Jun, (2000). endobj Steel slag is a large amount of residual material produced in the process of steel manufacturing. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1Sp�W� Slags are nonmetallic byproducts of many metallurgical operations and consist primarily of calcium, magnesium, and aluminum silicates in various combinations. 5 0 obj Many studies have been carried out for chemical and mineralogical characteristics of LD slag. endobj The Ohio State University Agricultural Technical Institute, Wooster, OH. /Contents 22 0 R>> The global warming effect and natural resource saving are the general environmental topics nowadays. In addition, to its liming benefits, slag contains plant nutrients that can enhance plant growth and contains Si which has been shown to increase yields of grass crops, such as rice and sugar cane and Si also helps crops defend against crop diseases. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1Tp�W� Slag is principally a lime based material that absorbs the oxides and trace elements arising from refining of iron. Steel slag is used in agricultural steel slag containing a large amount of calcium oxide and magnesium oxide, which can be used to improve acidic soil. Thus this can be used as a rural biotechnology for better plant growth (Pradhan et al., 2003). Steel slag has now gained much attention because of its new applications. 17 0 obj Steel slags have been utilized successfully as a construction material, due to their good technical properties. stream The iron and steel slag used as aggregates for asphalt roads are iron and steel by-products. Negative effects, resulting from steel slags use, could derive from their heavy metal concentrations, but such metals tend to bound to the slag matrix and thus they are not available for plants. endobj <> Publish History. Its alkaline property neutralizes soil acidity. In addition, to its liming benefits, slag contains plant nutrients that can enhance plant growth. � �o� Steel slag can be used as a soil neutralizer for highly acidic soils in areas such as Eastern India; it’s use as a fertilizer has also been well-established Steel slag has a longer life and durability than natural aggregates when used as rail ballast, thus helping save maintenance costs Now, technicians at our Kryvyi Rih site in Ukraine have been exploring new ways to sell slag as a fertiliser or soil improver. In: Proceeding of Environment and Waste Management, NML, Jamshedpur, India, pp: 81-94 (2002). <> � ��� endobj In: 6th international seminar on mineral processing technology, NML, Jamshedpur, pp: 747-757 (2010). x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �14Tp�W� Steel LD slag has been used as a liming agent for pasture in Northern Spain. Figure 1: Flowchart of slag production in a modern steel plant
<> Steel Slag Steel slag is produced during the steel making process where, after air cooling, a dense rock material is processed and sized into specific products suitable for diverse applications. The rates of liming required are high and the use of limestone may not be economically feasible (Munn, 1998). <> Hawai steel slag has been utilized in agriculture as a liming material for improving acid soil or as Si source for paddy rice and sugar cane plants. Following processing and metal recovery, the nonmetallic products from the furnace, raker and ladle slags are used for different applications including as construction aggregate, in agriculture or reclamation of acidic lands (www.nationalslag.org). The deposit volume of steel slag in China exceeds 400 million tons, leading to the occupation of a large area of land and serious environment pollution. Government of India, Ministry of Finance (Circular No 553/49/2000-CX New Delhi, the 18th October, 2000) has notified that LD slag can be used as soil conditioner after its crushing, washing and adding with rock phosphates etc. endobj Table 1: Chemical composition of LD slag (%)
The main uses of Slag are in construction, water treatment, agriculture, cementitious applications. Pradhan, , Kar, R. N.,Sukla, L. B., Das, B., and Mishra, V. N., Use of steel plant waste (LD Slag) as soil conditioner. A steel slag from the company ArcelorMittal Tubarão and a commercial limestone were used as neutralizing agents. <> Alexandre, J., and Boudonnet, J.Y., Les laitiers d'aciérie LD et leurs utilisations routières. endobj Through an in-depth study on steel slag, it is apparent that it has been widely used in various fields in recent years. endstream x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1Vp�W� endstream The drop in pH is due to the oxidation of sulfides in these coastal soils with the production of sulfuric acid. Takano, Cyro et al., Recycling of Solid Waste From Integrated Steel Plant: A Sustainable Alternative. It has been reported that the soluble salt contents of fine and coarse steel slag of 3.68 and 2.55 decisiemens per meter (dS/m) respectively. <> <> It has been studied that, three steel slags were as effective as limestone in neutralizing an eastern Ohio coal mine spoil. The efforts have been made in Tata steel that LD slag after grinding to 300 mesh, can be used as a soil conditioner in paddy field, tea gardens etc (Basu et al., 2002). Ramachandran, V., The treatment and minimization of waste. During the steelmaking process, slags float on top of the molten iron, forming a barrier against oxygen and maintaining the internal … 16 0 obj The advantage is that the premelted flux is more easily remelted than the raw flux. The use of steel slag as fertilisers and soil nutrients is gaining importance across the globe as it represents an eco-friendly application wherein advantages of chemical properties of steel-making slag can be utilised to promote the growth of plants and increase the yield of agricultural products, particularly in the areas where the soil is acidic. Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. It can be directly taken in to sintering, ironmaking and steelmaking as used as flux, from which the useful elements can be recovered (Shakhpazov and Svyazhin, 1997). endobj 37 0 obj <> 49 0 obj However, the current utilization rate of steel slag in China is only about 21%, which is far behind that of developed countries. Kourounis, S., Tsivilis, S., Tsakiridis, P.E. LD steel slag for soil stabilization and soil conditioner. stream 33 0 obj Similarly, lime mud is high calcium carbonate content byproduct from the pulp and paper … SFS has been used successfully in the friction course of hot mix asphalt pavements, as well as in Superpave mix designs and stone matrix asphalt. The main problem concerning the utilization of steel slag in agriculture consists of the possible leaching of heavy metals. Growers are increasingly looking to coproduct liming materials like steel slag. Click here to View table, Table 4: Presence of trace element composition (mg/kg) of steel slags
Table 3: Characteristics and applications of steel slag
The review covers different aspects by summarizing its use as fertiliser as well as liming agent, its potential use for soils amendment and by paying attention to different technologies and methodologies aiming to improve the quality of the slag, in order to increase its use in agriculture. Through proper quality control, the steel slags aggregates can reach a stronger bearing capacity; permanently stable if the requirements for the volume stability have been fulfilled, and do not influence the environment by leaching (Motz and Geiseler, 2001). Pazhani and Jeyaraj (2010, Ref. endobj � �p� Today, iron and steel slag is used in many fields where its unique characteristics can be put to effective use. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Molten Slags, Fluxes and Salts., Stockholm, Sweden-Helsinki, Finland, 12–17 June, CD Rom-paper 210 (2000), Shakhpazov, E. H., and Svyazhin, A. G. Slag recycling in ferrous metallurgy. endobj These spoils are extremely acidic pH and with toxic levels of available Al. endstream The oxyanions trace elements (Mo, V, Sn, and Sb) would be expected to be slightly more soluble and bioavailable at near neutral pH than the cationic metals (Beck and Daniels, 2008). Singh, R., Gorai, A. K. and Segaran, R. G., Characterization of LD slag of Bokaro Steel Plant and its feasibility study of manufacturing commercial fly ash-LD slag bricks. In the primary process, crude steel is produced in two ways. Mench, M., Didier, V., Löffler, M., Gomez, A., and Masson, P., A mimicked in-situ remediation study of metal-contaminated soils with emphasis on cadmium and lead. LD steel slag for reclamation of acidic lands. � ��� A much better understanding of slags, their specific roles The materials are used to maximise yields of cultivated crops and pasture, improve soil texture and neutralize high soil acidity. endobj The main uses of Slag are in construction, water treatment, agriculture, cementitious applications. hydroxides, oxides and sulphates). Iron and steelmaking slags (ferrous slags) are co-products of the iron and steel making industry. The second landfill (slag 2) contains an estimated 30.000 tonnes of slag, which has not been exploited till now. Steel LD slag is a secondary resource of raw material in metallurgical plant. Chand S, Paul B, Kumar M. An Overview of Use of Linz-Donawitz (LD) Steel Slag in Agriculture. Blast furnace slag can be used also in agriculture because of its high sorption capacity of phosphorus, which remains into the available form for the plants. This process leads to a glassy, granular product that is then dried and ground into a fine powder. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �12Rp�W� <> Plants can tolerate up to 4 dS/m, so soluble salts should not be an issue with agricultural applications. It can be categorized as carbon steel slag and stainless steel slag according to the type of steel, and as pretreatment slag, Linz-Donawitz (LD) converter slag, electrical arc furnace slag (EAFS), ladle refining slag and casting residue according to the steelmaking process (Meng and Liu, 2000).